Vaccine Update

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Jun »

The following is a fairly extensive extract ;) from a Daily Telegraph article:

Coronavirus vaccine hopes rise after strong trial results
Vaccine by Oxford scientists may offer 'double defence' against the virus
By Bill Gardner ; Victoria Ward ; Sarah Newey and Henry Bodkin, Health and Science Correspondent 15 July 2020 • 9:55pm

Dr Sarah Gilbert, in the labs at the Old Road Campus Research Building in Oxford Credit: John Lawrence

Phase I human trials of the world-leading Oxford vaccine have shown that it generates an immune response against the disease, the Telegraph has learned.
Blood samples taken from a group of UK volunteers given a dose of the vaccine showed that it stimulated the body to produce both antibodies and "killer T-cells", a senior source said.
The discovery is promising because separate studies have suggested that antibodies may fade away within months while T-cells can stay in circulation for years.
However the source cautioned that the results, while “extremely promising”, did not yet prove that the Oxford vaccine provides long-lasting immunity against Covid-19.
“I can tell you that we now know the Oxford vaccine covers both bases - it produces both a T cell and an antibody response,” the senior source told the Telegraph.
“It’s the combination of these two that will hopefully keep people safe.
“So far, so good. It’s an important moment. But we still have a long way to go.”

Another source close to the team described the presence of both antibodies and T-cells as a “double defence” against Covid-19.

The full findings will be published in the Lancet medical journal on July 20, it was confirmed on Wednesday night.

The findings are based on initial results from a Phase 1 clinical trial, which began in Oxford in April when doses of the vaccine were given to 500 volunteers. A major trial is currently underway involving 5,000 volunteers in virus-hit Brazil to prove the vaccine is effective, while the drugmaker AstraZeneca has signed a deal to produce up to two billion doses. If all goes well, the researchers hope the vaccine may be ready as early as October.
Speaking on Peston on ITV on Wednesday night, Matt Hancock, the Health Secretary, said the best case scenario is for the vaccine to be available this year, but added it will "more likely" be ready in 2021.

The initial data also suggests that the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine is safe with no major side effects, it is understood, although further work will be needed. The team is also evaluating the level of dose needed to produce an effective response.
Stocks soared on Wednesday after reports of positive news on the Oxford vaccine to be released next week. Shares in AstraZeneca, the drugmaker licensed to produce billions of doses of the Oxford vaccine, jumped 5.2 per cemt.
David Carpenter, chair of the Berkshire Research Ethics Committee (REC), which approved the Oxford trial and continues to work with scientists on amendments, told the Telegraph that the team were “absolutely on track”.
“They can strengthen findings by targeting people in hospitals, healthcare professionals, where the spread is (more) likely to happen.
“Nobody can put final dates.. things might go wrong but the reality is that by working with a big pharma company, that vaccine could be fairly widely available around September and that is the sort of target they are working on.”
The T-cell discovery is likely to be important because scientists increasingly believe that any successful vaccine will need to trigger the production of both antibodies and T cells, which directly attack human cells that have already become infected with viruses.
Earlier this year a similar vaccine against MERS invented by the same Oxford team was found to elicit high levels of T-cells, but only triggered neutralising antibodies in 44 per cent of volunteers.
If the Covid vaccine can be proven in further trials to elicit a similarly strong T-cell response, the team hopes it may not need to trigger high levels of antibodies to provide meaningful protection.

A number of other vaccine candidates across the world have also produced T-Cell responses, but only in smaller scale studies. Others including a major project in China are thought to be unlikely to produce T-cells when tested on humans.
This week the US biotech company, Moderna, published data from a phase one trial involving 45 people showing that its RNA vaccine triggered both neutralising antibodies and T cells.
The findings come amid increasing gloom over the longevity of Covid-19 antibodies. Earlier this week, a Kings College study found that people who recovered from Covid-19 appeared to lose their antibodies within months.
But in a study published in Nature today researchers found that T Cells from the SARS outbreak had lasted for 17 years.
Duke University Scientists in Singapore found T Cells were still circulating in potent quantities from patients who were infected in 2003. It is not known for sure if the same will be true for Covid-19, and whether the T Cells will protect against re-infection, but, speaking to The Telegraph, the lead researcher described discovery as "potentially very significant for a vaccine".

The researchers also found "remarkable" levels of T cells able to latch on to Covid-19 virus within people who had never been infected with the disease.
They believe these may have been triggered by the common cold and other animal coronaviruses - mainly originating in bats - and that the primed cells may also offer protection against the new virus.
Professor Bartoletti, who led the research in Singapore, said this may explain why so few patients in Singapore and South East Asia have had really severe infections.
He said that while these T Cells will be more common in Asia, they will be present around the world. It suggests a significant proportion of all populations will have a degree of natural immunity to Covid-19.

Clinical trials of the Oxford vaccine, marking phase III in the UK and involving more than 8,000 participants, are now almost complete. The focus has now moved to Brazil and South Africa, where the disease is more prevalent, and scientists hope to gather sufficient cases within around a month.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Bangkokian »

To summarise the article above, news today that the Oxford University vaccine is well advanced and is ready to go into the next stage of testing.
It will not only make a large level of antibodies but also T cells.
It hopefully will be ready to manufacture one billion doses by the autumn.
The doses will be manufactured by Astrazeneca on a non-profit basis.

"Scientists working on the project told the British newspaper, the Daily Telegraph, that their vaccine had provoked both antibody and T-cell responses to the coronavirus in human test subjects. Both are crucial to achieving immunity to disease.
Sources told the outlet that a tentative date for mass roll out of the vaccine was possible as early as September."


https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/a-cov ... stic-38164

The full interview is in The Daily Telegraph -- but it is behind a paywall.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Jun »

The fact that T-cells from the 2003 SARs outbreak lasted for 17 years, so far, is also, IMHO, a key point.
It's an additional potential explanation why Asia may have done better with COVID-19 & may increase confidence about T-cells lasting longer with COVID vaccines or infection.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by gera »

For people like myself who follow the developments , there is nothing new or exciting about these findings.
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=10357
What is important is that monkey challenge trial showed that Oxford vaccine is leaky. In other words, vaccinated monkeys did not get sick after being exposed to virus but still get infected and were shedding the virus (i.e. could probably get sick others). This along with fading antibodies make it highly unlikely that vaccine succeed (and probably others too). The best hope is in finding good antiviral and maintaining standard precautions (like in Thailand.)
Those who hope for panacea , do not hold your breath.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Jun »

gera wrote:
Fri Jul 17, 2020 1:35 am
For people like myself who follow the developments , there is nothing new or exciting about these findings.
This might surprise you, but you will not be the only amateur on the board following the developments.
Like you & some others, I am an amateur following events and I note that some of the findings by genuine experts differ wildly from your conclusions.

Also, a first publication of the latest results from the ongoing trials in the Lancet, would count an "new" information in the eyes of most observers. Continuing trials occasionally produce new data.

Within this thread, my intention has been to share information regarding vaccine development rather than be a duplicate thread for armchair scientists.
Those with a memory might recall some erroneous conclusions on another much more straightforward technical topic 12 months ago, so there are limits to such analysis and predictions.

My intention is to continue publishing vaccine news updates here.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by gera »

Not to mention that your post is personally offensive, you other posts in this thread are misleading. You choose to post on Oxford vaccine only, while I follow literally dozens of different vaccines in the development. This includes Cansinobio vaccine and Gamalei institute vaccine in Russia which are similar to Oxford vaccine. Casinobio vaccine shows very iffy results and they have been published quite a while ago. And about the other topic you mentioned I was hundred percent correct. Max 737 is the safest plane ever built which is confirmed by current certification flights. And I am a researcher myself who is capable to read original papers not just idiotic blurb in various tabloids you are using as a source.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Jun »

gera wrote:
Fri Jul 17, 2020 4:56 am
And I am a researcher myself who is capable to read original papers not just idiotic blurb in various tabloids you are using as a source.
1 If you don't like the content in this thread which is mostly sourced from reliable media organisations & on a topic of considerable interest to many, just don't read it.

2 It's also a bit rich to criticize informative material from a major media company, whilst adding your own inaccurate comments instead.

3 I've met many real professors & academics during my education and professional career. Their ability has usually been obvious from any dialogue. Not one has ever seen the need to constantly remind others how smart they are.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Gaybutton »

This is my last warning. I have repeatedly asked that posts stick to the issue and not get personal with each other. Apparently some still ignore that and think I will continue to tolerate it. I won't.

Ok, gents, you stand warned. Nobody, and I mean NOBODY, is so vital to this board that I am going to permit board rules and my wishes to be disregarded.

You have a choice. Stick to the issues without getting personal or get personal anyway and lose your posting privileges on this board. If anyone thinks I don't really mean it or that I mean others but not you, try me.

You want to post on this board? Then obey the rules.

I hope I have made myself clear and I hope nobody will have to find out the hard way.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Bangkokian »

No, you have not made clear to whom your last warning is directed.

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Re: Vaccine Update

Post by Gaybutton »

Bangkokian wrote:
Fri Jul 17, 2020 4:01 pm
No, you have not made clear to whom your last warning is directed.
I think it is perfectly clear to those to whom it is directed and I don't want to get specific about it. In your case, you have nothing to worry about. The warning is definitely not directed toward you. You have not done anything wrong at all. You have never done anything wrong on this board.

You do stick to the issue and you do not get personal with anyone. And that is exactly how I want it on this board. I just wish everyone would do the same so that I don't have to step in.

I don't want to kick anyone off the board, but those who repeatedly and knowingly violate the rules despite the fact that I have asked them not to do that numerous times, some need to understand that when I check the board and find the same people still doing the same things I have asked them not to do, the time comes when I've finally had enough of it - and believe me, that time has come.

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